The Man Page
Just A Few Common Ones :
no_root_squash: By default, NFS shares change the root user to the nfsnobody user, an unprivileged user account. This changes the owner of all root-created files to nfsnobody, which prevents uploading of programs with the setuid bit set.
If no_root_squash is used, remote root users are able to change any file on the shared file system and leave applications infected by Trojans for other users to inadvertently execute.
async vs sync: snyc means changes are written to disk immediately. This is default and most widely used.
no_subtree_check: This option disables subtree checking, which has mild security implications, but can improve reliability in some circumstances
[default will be no_subtree_check as subtree_checking tends to cause more problems than it is worth. If you genuinely require subtree checking, you should explicitly put that option in the exports file.]
nohide: Causes deeper exports to show via bottom export mounting. The option can be explicitly disabled with hide.
insecure: The insecure option in this entry also allows clients with NFS implementations that don't use a reserved port for NFS.